Last Updated: Mar 22, 2015
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The Answer to Bloody Sunday:
Mar 22, 2015
March 7 was “Bloody Sunday,” the day 50 years ago that Alabama state troopers ambushed and violently attacked a peaceful march near Selma Alabama. Demonstrators were tear-gassed and beaten with clubs. One of the organizers of the march, Amelia Boynton, was savagely knocked to the ground. Lying unconscious on the bridge, she was kicked, her body further abused by county law enforcement. Nine days earlier, a state trooper had shot into another peaceful demonstration, killing civil rights activist and church deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson. Two days after “Bloody Sunday” another march set out from Selma, only to turn back when troopers threatened to attack again. Civil rights activist and Boston minister James Reeb was beaten to death that night by white racist vigilantes.
The politicians pretended to be appalled by this violence. And Congress, never known for speed, moved to act. By August 6, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 had been introduced, gone through committee, voted on and signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
But Congress was not reacting to the violence. Appalled by violence? Violence had overflowed all during the years when the black population was asking to have the same rights as other people, demonstrating peacefully for them. Thousands of peaceful people had been killed, tens of thousands injured permanently, untold numbers lynched, including by state troopers and other “guardians of order.” Where was Congress then?
No, Congress was not appalled by the violence rained on those demonstrators in Selma. It was acting to head off anger threatening to explode from deep in the black population.
After decades of demonstrating peacefully, paying a terrible price, the black population began to defend itself. In 1963, Birmingham Alabama was swept by an over-night “riot” after the SCLC headquarters was firebombed. In 1964, people responded in kind against police who violently cleared the streets in Harlem, and the fighting spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn and several New Jersey towns. People in many cities echoed the words of Malcolm X, who famously said: “You should never be non-violent unless you run into some non-violence.... die for what you believe in. But don’t die alone. Let your dying be reciprocal. This is what is meant by equality.”
This attitude is what Congress attempted to throttle by passing the Voting Rights Act.
Five days after it was passed, the people of Watts gave their verdict: they went out into the streets of Los Angeles, the first of the really massive and powerful revolts, echoed in five other cities. 1966: 21 major so-called “riots.” 1967: 41 major “riots.” The rebellion in Newark spread to 13 other New Jersey cities; the enormous one in Detroit spread to eight other cities in Michigan and Ohio. 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King: hundreds of thousands of people rose up in cities all over the country, almost immediately and simultaneously, reflecting an increasingly radicalized consciousness in the black population.
Black people were not “given” the right to vote. The black population took it through its own massive struggles. Those struggles imposed a rapid change in every field: jobs, wages, voting, housing, Social Security coverage, medical coverage – vast improvements that also improved the situation of most white workers. And those struggles forced the American capitalist class to decide it could no longer pursue its war in Viet Nam.
The face of the country was changed – for a while. The population, which had gained so much, may have believed the gains were permanent. They were not.
Those gains may not all have been lost. Not yet. But the push of the capitalist class to increase the exploitation of the whole working class is ripping every gain to shreds, and the black population suffers the brunt of the attack.
The black population did not make gains by “turning the other cheek,” accepting to be victims. They won through struggle. What was won through struggle will be reconquered the same way.